Linux Test Project

lcov(1)                          User Manuals                          lcov(1)



NAME
       lcov - a graphical GCOV front-end

SYNOPSIS
       lcov -c|--capture
            [-d|--directory directory] [-k|--kernel-directory directory]
            [-o|--output-file tracefile] [-t|--test-name testname]
            [-b|--base-directory directory] [-i|--initial] [--gcov-tool tool]
            [--checksum] [--no-checksum] [--no-recursion] [-f|--follow]
            [--compat-libtool] [--no-compat-libtool] [--ignore-errors errors]
            [--to-package package] [--from-package package] [-q|--quiet]
            [--no-markers] [--external] [--no-external]
            [--config-file config-file] [--rc keyword=value]
            [--compat mode=on|off|auto]

       lcov -z|--zerocounters
            [-d|--directory directory] [--no-recursion] [-f|--follow]
            [-q|--quiet]

       lcov -l|--list tracefile
            [-q|--quiet] [--list-full-path] [--no-list-full-path]
            [--config-file config-file] [--rc keyword=value]

       lcov -a|--add-tracefile tracefile
            [-o|--output-file tracefile] [--checksum] [--no-checksum]
            [-q|--quiet] [--config-file config-file] [--rc keyword=value]

       lcov -e|--extract tracefile pattern
            [-o|--output-file tracefile] [--checksum] [--no-checksum]
            [-q|--quiet] [--config-file config-file] [--rc keyword=value]

       lcov -r|--remove tracefile pattern
            [-o|--output-file tracefile] [--checksum] [--no-checksum]
            [-q|--quiet] [--config-file config-file] [--rc keyword=value]

       lcov --diff tracefile diff
            [-o|--output-file tracefile] [--checksum] [--no-checksum]
            [--convert-filenames] [--strip depth] [--path path] [-q|--quiet]
            [--config-file config-file] [--rc keyword=value]

       lcov --summary tracefile
            [-q|--quiet]

       lcov [-h|--help] [-v|--version]


DESCRIPTION
       lcov  is a graphical front-end for GCC’s coverage testing tool gcov. It
       collects line, function and branch coverage data  for  multiple  source
       files  and creates HTML pages containing the source code annotated with
       coverage information.  It also adds overview pages for easy  navigation
       within the file structure.

       Use  lcov  to  collect  coverage data and genhtml to create HTML pages.
       Coverage data can either be collected from the currently running  Linux
       kernel  or  from a user space application. To do this, you have to com-
       plete the following preparation steps:

       For Linux kernel coverage:
              Follow the setup instructions for  the  gcov-kernel  infrastruc-
              ture: http://ltp.sourceforge.net/coverage/gcov.php


       For user space application coverage:
              Compile  the  application  with  GCC  using  the options "-fpro-
              file-arcs" and "-ftest-coverage".

       Please note that this man page refers to the output format of  lcov  as
       ".info  file" or "tracefile" and that the output of GCOV is called ".da
       file".

       Also note that when printing percentages, 0% and 100% are only  printed
       when  the  values  are  exactly  0% and 100% respectively. Other values
       which would conventionally be rounded to 0% or 100% are instead printed
       as nearest non-boundary value. This behavior is in accordance with that
       of the gcov(1) tool.


OPTIONS
       -a tracefile
       --add-tracefile tracefile
              Add contents of tracefile.

              Specify several tracefiles using the -a switch  to  combine  the
              coverage  data  contained  in these files by adding up execution
              counts for matching test and filename combinations.

              The result of the add operation will be written to stdout or the
              tracefile specified with -o.

              Only  one of  -z, -c, -a, -e, -r, -l, --diff or --summary may be
              specified at a time.


       -b directory
       --base-directory directory
              Use directory as base directory for relative paths.

              Use this option to specify the base directory of  a  build-envi-
              ronment when lcov produces error messages like:

                     ERROR: could not read source file /home/user/project/sub-
                     dir1/subdir2/subdir1/subdir2/file.c

              In this example, use /home/user/project as base directory.

              This option is required when using lcov on projects  built  with
              libtool  or  similar  build  environments  that work with a base
              directory, i.e. environments, where the current  working  direc-
              tory  when  invoking  the  compiler is not the same directory in
              which the source code file is located.

              Note that this option will not work in environments where multi-
              ple  base  directories  are used. In that case use configuration
              file setting geninfo_auto_base=1 (see lcovrc(5)).

       -c
       --capture
              Capture coverage data.

              By default captures the  current  kernel  execution  counts  and
              writes  the  resulting coverage data to the standard output. Use
              the --directory option to capture counts for a user  space  pro-
              gram.

              The result of the capture operation will be written to stdout or
              the tracefile specified with -o.

              Only one of  -z, -c, -a, -e, -r, -l, --diff or --summary may  be
              specified at a time.

       --checksum
       --no-checksum
              Specify  whether  to  generate checksum data when writing trace-
              files.

              Use --checksum to enable checksum generation or --no-checksum to
              disable it. Checksum generation is disabled by default.

              When  checksum  generation is enabled, a checksum will be gener-
              ated for each source code line and stored along with the  cover-
              age data. This checksum will be used to prevent attempts to com-
              bine coverage data from different source code versions.

              If you don’t work with different source code  versions,  disable
              this  option  to speed up coverage data processing and to reduce
              the size of tracefiles.

       --compat mode=value[,mode=value,...]
              Set compatibility mode.

              Use --compat to specify that lcov should enable one or more com-
              patibility modes when capturing coverage data. You can provide a
              comma-separated list of mode=value pairs to specify  the  values
              for multiple modes.

              Valid values are:

              on
                     Enable compatibility mode.
              off
                     Disable compatibility mode.
              auto
                     Apply  auto-detection  to determine if compatibility mode
                     is required. Note that auto-detection  is  not  available
                     for all compatibility modes.

              If no value is specified, ’on’ is assumed as default value.

              Valid modes are:

              libtool
                     Enable this mode if you are capturing coverage data for a
                     project that was built using the libtool  mechanism.  See
                     also --compat-libtool.

                     The default value for this setting is ’on’.

              hammer
                     Enable this mode if you are capturing coverage data for a
                     project that was built using a version of  GCC  3.3  that
                     contains  a modification (hammer patch) of later GCC ver-
                     sions. You can identify a modified GCC  3.3  by  checking
                     the  build  directory of your project for files ending in
                     the extension ’.bbg’. Unmodified versions of GCC 3.3 name
                     these files ’.bb’.

                     The default value for this setting is ’auto’.

              split_crc
                     Enable this mode if you are capturing coverage data for a
                     project that was built using a version of  GCC  4.6  that
                     contains  a  modification  (split  function checksums) of
                     later GCC versions. Typical error messages  when  running
                     lcov  on  coverage data produced by such GCC versions are
                     ´out of memory’ and ’reached unexpected end of file’.

                     The default value for this setting is ’auto’


       --compat-libtool
       --no-compat-libtool
              Specify whether to enable libtool compatibility mode.

              Use --compat-libtool to enable  libtool  compatibility  mode  or
              --no-compat-libtool  to  disable  it.  The libtool compatibility
              mode is enabled by default.

              When libtool compatibility mode is  enabled,  lcov  will  assume
              that  the source code relating to a .da file located in a direc-
              tory named ".libs" can be found in its parent directory.

              If you have directories named ".libs" in your build  environment
              but  don’t  use libtool, disable this option to prevent problems
              when capturing coverage data.

       --config-file config-file
              Specify a configuration file to use.

              When this option is specified, neither the system-wide  configu-
              ration  file  /etc/lcovrc,  nor  the per-user configuration file
              ~/.lcovrc is read.

              This option may be useful when there is a need  to  run  several
              instances  of  lcov with different configuration file options in
              parallel.

       --convert-filenames
              Convert filenames when applying diff.

              Use this option together with --diff to rename the file names of
              processed  data sets according to the data provided by the diff.

       --diff tracefile difffile
              Convert coverage data in tracefile using source code  diff  file
              difffile.

              Use  this option if you want to merge coverage data from differ-
              ent source code levels of a program, e.g.  when  you  have  data
              taken  from  an  older  version and want to combine it with data
              from a more current version.  lcov will try to map  source  code
              lines  between  those  versions  and  adjust  the  coverage data
              respectively.  difffile needs to be in unified format,  i.e.  it
              has to be created using the "-u" option of the diff tool.

              Note  that  lines  which are not present in the old version will
              not be counted as instrumented, therefore  tracefiles  resulting
              from  this  operation should not be interpreted individually but
              together with other tracefiles taken  from  the  newer  version.
              Also  keep  in  mind that converted coverage data should only be
              used for overview purposes as the process  itself  introduces  a
              loss of accuracy.

              The  result  of  the diff operation will be written to stdout or
              the tracefile specified with -o.

              Only one of  -z, -c, -a, -e, -r, -l, --diff or --summary may  be
              specified at a time.

       -d directory
       --directory directory
              Use .da files in directory instead of kernel.

              If  you  want to work on coverage data for a user space program,
              use this option to specify the location where  the  program  was
              compiled (that’s where the counter files ending with .da will be
              stored).

              Note that you may specify this option more than once.

       --external
       --no-external
              Specify whether to capture coverage  data  for  external  source
              files.

              External  source files are files which are not located in one of
              the directories specified by  --directory  or  --base-directory.
              Use  --external to include external source files while capturing
              coverage data or --no-external to ignore this data.

              Data for external source files is included by default.

       -e tracefile pattern
       --extract tracefile pattern
              Extract data from tracefile.

              Use this switch if you want to extract coverage data for only  a
              particular  set  of  files  from a tracefile. Additional command
              line parameters will be interpreted as shell  wildcard  patterns
              (note  that  they  may need to be escaped accordingly to prevent
              the shell from expanding  them  first).   Every  file  entry  in
              tracefile  which  matches at least one of those patterns will be
              extracted.

              The result of the extract operation will be written to stdout or
              the tracefile specified with -o.

              Only  one of  -z, -c, -a, -e, -r, -l, --diff or --summary may be
              specified at a time.

       -f
       --follow
              Follow links when searching for .da files.

       --from-package package
              Use .da files in package instead of kernel or directory.

              Use this option if you have separate machines for build and test
              and  want  to  perform  the  .info  file  creation  on the build
              machine. See --to-package for more information.

       --gcov-tool tool
              Specify the location of the gcov tool.

       -h
       --help
              Print a short help text, then exit.

       --ignore-errors errors
              Specify a list of errors after which to continue processing.

              Use this option to specify a list of  one  or  more  classes  of
              errors  after  which  lcov should continue processing instead of
              aborting.

              errors can be a comma-separated list of the following keywords:

              gcov: the gcov tool returned with a non-zero return code.

              source: the source code file for a data set could not be  found.

       -i
       --initial
              Capture initial zero coverage data.

              Run  lcov  with -c and this option on the directories containing
              .bb, .bbg or .gcno files  before  running  any  test  case.  The
              result  is  a  "baseline"  coverage data file that contains zero
              coverage for every instrumented line.  Combine  this  data  file
              (using  lcov  -a) with coverage data files captured after a test
              run to ensure that the percentage of total lines covered is cor-
              rect  even when not all source code files were loaded during the
              test.

              Recommended procedure when capturing data for a test case:

              1. create baseline coverage data file
                     # lcov -c -i -d appdir -o app_base.info

              2. perform test
                     # appdir/test

              3. create test coverage data file
                     # lcov -c -d appdir -o app_test.info

              4. combine baseline and test coverage data
                     #   lcov   -a   app_base.info   -a    app_test.info    -o
                     app_total.info


       -k subdirectory
       --kernel-directory subdirectory
              Capture kernel coverage data only from subdirectory.

              Use  this  option if you don’t want to get coverage data for all
              of the kernel, but only for specific subdirectories. This option
              may be specified more than once.

              Note  that  you  may need to specify the full path to the kernel
              subdirectory depending on the version of the  kernel  gcov  sup-
              port.

       -l tracefile
       --list tracefile
              List the contents of the tracefile.

              Only  one of  -z, -c, -a, -e, -r, -l, --diff or --summary may be
              specified at a time.

       --list-full-path
       --no-list-full-path
              Specify whether to show full paths during list operation.

              Use --list-full-path to show full paths during list operation or
              --no-list-full-path to show shortened paths. Paths are shortened
              by default.

       --no-markers
              Use this option if you want to get coverage data without  regard
              to  exclusion  markers  in the source code file. See geninfo (1)
              for details on exclusion markers.

       --no-recursion
              Use this option if you want to get coverage data for the  speci-
              fied directory only without processing subdirectories.

       -o tracefile
       --output-file tracefile
              Write data to tracefile instead of stdout.

              Specify "-" as a filename to use the standard output.

              By  convention,  lcov-generated  coverage  data files are called
              "tracefiles" and should have the filename extension ".info".

       --path path
              Strip path from filenames when applying diff.

              Use this option together with --diff to tell lcov  to  disregard
              the  specified  initial  path  component  when  matching between
              tracefile and diff filenames.

       -q
       --quiet
              Do not print progress messages.

              This option is implied when no output filename is  specified  to
              prevent  progress  messages  to mess with coverage data which is
              also printed to the standard output.

       --rc keyword=value
              Override a configuration directive.

              Use this option to specify a keyword=value statement which over-
              rides  the  corresponding  configuration statement in the lcovrc
              configuration file. You can specify this option more  than  once
              to  override  multiple  configuration statements.  See lcovrc(5)
              for a list of available keywords and their meaning.

       -r tracefile pattern
       --remove tracefile pattern
              Remove data from tracefile.

              Use this switch if you want to remove coverage data for  a  par-
              ticular  set  of files from a tracefile. Additional command line
              parameters will be interpreted as shell wildcard patterns  (note
              that  they  may  need  to  be escaped accordingly to prevent the
              shell from expanding them first).  Every file entry in tracefile
              which matches at least one of those patterns will be removed.

              The  result of the remove operation will be written to stdout or
              the tracefile specified with -o.

              Only one of  -z, -c, -a, -e, -r, -l, --diff or --summary may  be
              specified at a time.

       --strip depth
              Strip path components when applying diff.

              Use  this  option together with --diff to tell lcov to disregard
              the specified number of initial directories when matching trace-
              file and diff filenames.

       --summary tracefile
              Show summary coverage information for the specified tracefile.

              Note that you may specify this option more than once.

              Only  one of  -z, -c, -a, -e, -r, -l, --diff or --summary may be
              specified at a time.

       -t testname
       --test-name testname
              Specify test name to be stored in the tracefile.

              This name identifies a coverage data set when more than one data
              set is merged into a combined tracefile (see option -a).

              Valid  test names can consist of letters, decimal digits and the
              underscore character ("_").

       --to-package package
              Store .da files for later processing.

              Use this option if you have separate machines for build and test
              and  want  to  perform  the  .info  file  creation  on the build
              machine. To do this, follow these steps:

              On the test machine:
                     - run the test
                     - run lcov -c [-d directory] --to-package file
                     - copy file to the build machine

              On the build machine:
                     - run lcov -c --from-package file [-o and other options]

              This works for both kernel and user space  coverage  data.  Note
              that  you  might have to specify the path to the build directory
              using -b with either --to-package or --from-package.  Note  also
              that  the  package data must be converted to a .info file before
              recompiling the program or it will become invalid.

       -v
       --version
              Print version number, then exit.

       -z
       --zerocounters
              Reset all execution counts to zero.

              By default tries to  reset  kernel  execution  counts.  Use  the
              --directory  option  to  reset all counters of a user space pro-
              gram.

              Only one of  -z, -c, -a, -e, -r, -l, --diff or --summary may  be
              specified at a time.


FILES
       /etc/lcovrc
              The system-wide configuration file.

       ~/.lcovrc
              The per-user configuration file.


AUTHOR
       Peter Oberparleiter <Peter.Oberparleiter@de.ibm.com>


SEE ALSO
       lcovrc(5), genhtml(1), geninfo(1), genpng(1), gendesc(1), gcov(1)



2012-10-10                         LCOV 1.10                           lcov(1)

Sourceforge.net  Last modified on: October 12, 2012 - 09:18:38 UTC.
Theme: